Anatomy & Physiology

A general vocabulary pertaining to students taking Anatomy & Physiology 1

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definitions & notes
only words

  1. physiology

    the science dealing with the functioning of organisms
  2. biology

    the science that studies living organisms
  3. Homo sapiens

    the only surviving hominid
  4. protist

    free-living or colonial organisms with diverse nutritional and reproductive modes
    So he created a simple system in the lab using
    protists, one-celled organisms that naturally thrive in pond scum and feed on bacteria.
  5. gross anatomy

    the study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a microscope
  6. histological

    of or relating to histology
  7. histology

    the study of the microscopic structure of tissues
  8. taxonomy

    a classification of organisms based on similarities
  9. phylum Chordata

    comprises true vertebrates and animals having a notochord
  10. subphylum Vertebrata

    fishes; amphibians; reptiles; birds; mammals
  11. Hominoidea

    anthropoid apes and human beings
  12. sapiens

    of or relating to or characteristic of Homo sapiens
  13. organism

    a living thing that can act or function independently
  14. platelet

    a cell fragment essential for blood clotting in vertebrates
  15. clot

    a lump of material formed from the content of a liquid
  16. coagulate

    change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state
  17. prothrombin

    a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
  18. thrombin

    an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot
  19. fibrin

    a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets
  20. fibroblast

    a cell from which connective tissue develops
  21. zygote

    the cell from the union of a haploid spermatozoon and ovum
  22. ovum

    the female reproductive cell; the female gamete
  23. sperm

    the male reproductive cell; the male gamete
  24. spermatogenesis

    development of spermatozoa
  25. spermatozoon

    the male reproductive cell; the male gamete
  26. diploid

    an organism or cell having the normal amount of DNA per cell
  27. mitosis

    the process by which a cell divides into two smaller cells
  28. daughter cell

    a cell formed by the division or budding of another cell
  29. haploid

    (genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
  30. enzyme

    a complex protein produced by cells that acts as a catalyst
  31. eukaryote

    an organism of one or more cells with membrane-bound nuclei
  32. eukaryotic

    having cells with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei
  33. organelle

    a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
  34. matrix

    an enclosure within which something originates or develops
  35. nucleus

    a part of the cell responsible for growth and reproduction
  36. ribosome

    a particle in a cell that helps synthesize proteins
  37. endoplasm

    the inner portion of the cytoplasm of a cell
  38. Golgi apparatus

    a netlike structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells
  39. vacuole

    a tiny cavity filled with fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell
  40. lysosome

    an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells
  41. nucleolus

    a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus
  42. prokaryote

    a unicellular organism lacking a membrane-bound nucleus
  43. prokaryotic

    having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei
  44. phospholipid

    any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
  45. polarity

    a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies
  46. diffusion

    the act of dispersing something
  47. osmosis

    diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane
  48. capillary

    a minute blood vessel connecting arterioles with venules
  49. syncytium

    a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei and enclosed in a membrane but no internal cell boundaries (as in muscle fibers)
  50. genome

    the full DNA sequence of an organism
  51. cytosol

    the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended
  52. microtubule

    a microscopically small tubule
  53. vesicle

    a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure
  54. macromolecule

    any very large complex molecule
  55. polysaccharide

    any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
  56. nucleic acid

    (biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
  57. monomer

    a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
  58. polymer

    a naturally occurring or synthetic compound
  59. nucleotide

    a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside
  60. polypeptide

    a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
  61. amino acid

    organic compounds containing an amino group and acid group
  62. gene

    part of DNA controlling physical characteristics and growth
  63. transcription

    something written, copied from one medium to another
  64. meiosis

    cell division in sexually reproducing organisms
  65. embryo

    an animal organism in the early stages of growth
  66. chromosome

    a threadlike strand of DNA that carries genes
  67. chromatid

    one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
  68. prophase

    the first stage of meiosis
  69. centromere

    a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
  70. metaphase

    the second stage of meiosis
  71. anaphase

    the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
  72. telophase

    the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
  73. cytokinesis

    organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
  74. cartilage

    tough elastic tissue, mostly converted to bone in adults
  75. areola

    small circular area such as that around the human nipple or an inflamed area around a pimple or insect bite
  76. areolar

    relating to or like or divided into areolae
  77. adipose

    composed of animal fat
  78. epithelium

    membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
  79. epithelial

    of or belonging to the epithelium
  80. epithelial tissue

    membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
  81. epithelial cell

    one of the closely packed cells forming the epithelium
  82. integument

    an outer protective covering
  83. integumentary system

    the skin and its appendages
  84. endothelium

    an epithelium of mesoblastic origin
  85. mollusk

    invertebrate with a soft unsegmented body usually in a shell
  86. femur

    the thigh bone of the human skeleton
  87. humerus

    bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
  88. hyaline cartilage

    translucent cartilage that is common in joints and the respiratory passages; forms most of the fetal skeleton
  89. hyaline

    resembling glass in transparency or translucency
  90. fibrocartilage

    cartilage that is largely composed of fibers like those in ordinary connective tissue
  91. periosteum

    a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles; contains nerves and blood vessels that nourish the enclosed bone
  92. ligament

    a band of fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages
  93. tendon

    a band of tissue connecting a muscle to its bony attachment
  94. medullary

    containing or consisting of or resembling bone marrow
  95. trabecular

    of or relating to trabeculae
  96. epiphysis

    the end of a long bone
  97. epiphyseal

    relating to the epiphysis of a bone
  98. diaphysis

    the main (mid) section of a long bone
  99. diaphysial

    relating to the diaphysis of a bone
  100. hematopoiesis

    the formation of blood cells in the living body
  101. suture

    a seam used in surgery
  102. synovial

    relating to or secreting synovia
  103. synovial fluid

    viscid lubricating fluid secreted by the membrane lining joints and tendon sheaths etc.
  104. synovial membrane

    a thin membrane in synovial (freely moving) joints that lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid
  105. adduction

    moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body
  106. flexion

    the state of being flexed (as of a joint)
  107. circumduction

    a circular movement of a limb or eye
  108. eversion

    the act of turning inside out
  109. supination

    rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face upward
  110. pronation

    rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
  111. cranium

    the part of the skull that encloses the brain
  112. coronal

    flower arrangement consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes
  113. coronal suture

    the suture between the parietal and frontal bones of the skull
  114. parietal

    of or relating to or associated with the parietal bones in the cranium
  115. parietal lobe

    that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying below the crown of the head
  116. parietal bone

    either of two skull bones between the frontal and occipital bones and forming the top and sides of the cranium
  117. temporal bone

    a thick bone forming the side of the human cranium and encasing the inner ear
  118. occipital

    of or relating to the occiput
  119. occipital lobe

    that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying in the back of the head
  120. occipital bone

    a saucer-shaped membrane bone that forms the back of the skull
  121. acoustic meatus

    either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
  122. meatus

    a natural body passageway
  123. mandible

    the jaw in vertebrates that is hinged to open the mouth
  124. mandibular

    relating to the lower jaw
  125. mandibular condyle

    the condyle of the ramus of the mandible that articulates with the skull
  126. ethmoid

    one of the eight bones of the cranium
  127. ethmoid bone

    one of the eight bones of the cranium
  128. zygomatic bone

    the arch of bone beneath the eye that forms the prominence of the cheek
  129. zygomatic

    of or relating to the cheek region of the face
  130. maxilla

    the jaw in vertebrates that is fused to the cranium
  131. styloid process

    extends from the base of the temporal bone
  132. lacrimal bone

    small fragile bone making up part of the front inner walls of each eye socket and providing room for the passage of the lacrimal ducts
  133. lacrimal

    of or relating to tears
  134. nasolacrimal duct

    a duct that carries tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity
  135. palatine bone

    either of two irregularly shaped bones that form the back of the hard palate and helps to form the nasal cavity and the floor of the orbits
  136. vomer

    thin trapezoidal bone of the skull forming the posterior and inferior parts of the nasal septum
  137. mastoid

    process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
  138. foramen magnum

    the large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes
  139. hyoid bone

    a U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles
  140. cervical vertebra

    one of 7 vertebrae in the human spine located in the neck region
  141. thoracic

    of or relating to the chest or thorax
  142. lumbar vertebra

    one of 5 vertebrae in the human vertebral column
  143. sacral

    of or relating to or near the sacrum
  144. sacral vertebra

    one of 5 vertebrae in the human spine that fuse in the adult to form the sacrum
  145. coccygeal

    of or relating to or near the coccyx
  146. coccygeal vertebra

    one of 4 vertebrae in the human coccyx
  147. entomologist

    a scientist who studies insects
  148. entomology

    the branch of zoology that studies insects
  149. chitin

    component of arthropods' exoskeletons and bodies of fungi
  150. xiphoid process

    smallest of the three parts of the breastbone
  151. manubrium

    the upper part of the breastbone
  152. clavicle

    bone linking the scapula and sternum
  153. girdle

    a band of material around the waist that strengthens a skirt or trousers
  154. scapula

    flat triangular bone on the side of the shoulder in humans
  155. sacrum

    wedge-shaped bone forming the posterior part of the pelvis
  156. coccyx

    the end of the vertebral column in humans and tailless apes
  157. ilium

    the upper and widest of the three bones making up the hipbone
  158. pubis

    one of the three sections of the hipbone
  159. ischium

    one of the three sections of the hipbone
  160. relaxin

    hormone secreted by the corpus luteum during the last days of pregnancy; relaxes the pelvic ligaments and prepares the uterus for labor
  161. glenoid cavity

    the concavity in the head of the scapula that receives the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint
  162. deltoid tuberosity

    a bump on the outside of the humerus where the deltoid muscle attaches
  163. deltoid

    large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint
  164. capitulum

    a dense cluster of flowers or foliage
  165. trochlear

    either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes
  166. coronoid process

    a sharp triangular process projecting from a bone
  167. olecranon process

    process of the ulna that forms the outer bump of the elbow and fits into the fossa of the humerus when the arm is extended
  168. acetabulum

    the cup-shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball-and-socket joint
  169. acetabular

    of the cup-shaped socket that receives the head of the thigh bone
  170. trochanter

    one of the bony prominences developed near the upper extremity of the femur to which muscles are attached
  171. tarsus

    the part of the foot of a vertebrate between the metatarsus and the leg; in human beings the bones of the ankle and heel collectively
  172. calcaneus

    the largest tarsal bone; forms the human heel
  173. lordosis

    an abnormal inward curvature of the vertebral column
  174. swayback

    having abnormal sagging of the spine (especially in horses)
  175. kyphosis

    an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column
  176. scoliosis

    an abnormal lateral curve of the spine
  177. osteoporosis

    abnormal loss of bony tissue due to a lack of calcium
  178. osteoarthritis

    chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints
  179. rheumatoid arthritis

    a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  180. ankylosing spondylitis

    a chronic form of spondylitis primarily in males and marked by impaired mobility of the spine; sometimes leads to ankylosis
  181. gout

    a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  182. sarcomere

    one of the segments into which a myofibril is divided
  183. arteriosclerosis

    sclerosis of the arterial walls
  184. diaphragm

    a muscular partition in the chest used in respiration
  185. sphincter

    a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening
  186. sphincter muscle

    a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening
  187. multinucleate

    having two or more nuclei
  188. striated muscle

    a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton; a muscle that is characterized by transverse stripes
  189. sarcolemma

    an extensible membrane enclosing the contractile substance of a muscle fiber
  190. perimysium

    the sheath of connective tissue that covers a bundle of muscle fibers
  191. biceps brachii

    a muscle that flexes and supinates the forearm
  192. synergist

    a drug that augments the activity of another drug
  193. synergy

    the working together of two things to produce an effect
  194. synergistic

    working together for an enhanced effect
  195. autonomous

    existing as an independent entity
  196. fusiform

    tapering at each end
  197. myosin

    the commonest protein in muscle
  198. actin

    one of the proteins into which actomyosin can be split
  199. masticate

    bite and grind with the teeth
  200. mastication

    biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow
  201. masseter

    a large muscle that raises the lower jaw and is used in chewing
  202. temporalis muscle

    muscle extending from the temporal fossa to the coronoid process of the mandible; acts to raise the mandible and close the jaws
  203. trapezius

    either of two flat triangular muscles of the shoulder and upper back that are involved in moving the shoulders and arms
  204. buccinator muscle

    a muscle that flattens the cheek and retracts the angle of the mouth
  205. pectoralis major

    a skeletal muscle that adducts and rotates the arm
  206. pectoralis minor

    a skeletal muscle that draws down the scapula or raises the ribs
  207. pectoralis

    either of two large muscles of the chest
  208. deltoid muscle

    a large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint and serving to abduct and flex and extend and rotate the arm
  209. latissimus dorsi

    a broad flat muscle on either side of the back
  210. rhomboid

    shaped like a rhombus or rhomboid
  211. rhomboid muscle

    any of several muscles of the upper back that help move the shoulder blade
  212. rotator cuff

    a supporting structure of the shoulder consisting of the muscles and tendons that attach the arm to the shoulder joint and enable the arm to move
  213. serratus anterior

    muscles that rotate the scapula and elevate the rib cage
  214. axilla

    the hollow under the arm where it is joined to the shoulder
  215. triceps brachii

    the skeletal muscle having three origins that extends the forearm when it contracts
  216. prehensile

    adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object
  217. sartorius muscle

    a muscle in the thigh that helps to rotate the leg into the sitting position assumed by a tailor; the longest muscle in the human body
  218. gluteus maximus

    the outermost of the three gluteal muscles
  219. rectus

    any of various straight muscles
  220. quadriceps

    a muscle of the thigh that extends the leg
  221. gastrocnemius muscle

    the muscle in the back part of the leg that forms the greater part of the calf; responsible for the plantar flexion of the foot
  222. Achilles tendon

    a large tendon that runs from the heel to the calf
  223. tibialis anterior

    a muscle running from the tibia to the first metatarsal and cuneiform bones
  224. tibialis posterior

    a deep muscle of the leg
  225. Duchenne's muscular dystrophy

    the most common form of muscular dystrophy
  226. myotonic muscular dystrophy

    a severe form of muscular dystrophy marked by generalized weakness and muscular wasting that affects the face and feet and hands and neck; difficult speech and difficulty with the hands that spreads to the arms and shoulders and legs and hips; the onset can be any time from birth to middle age and the progression is slow; inheritance is autosomal dominant
  227. muscle spasm

    a painful and involuntary muscular contraction
  228. epidermis

    the outer layer of skin covering the body surface
  229. stratum corneum

    the outermost layer of the epidermis consisting of dead cells that slough off
  230. stratum germinativum

    the innermost layer of the epidermis
  231. keratin

    a fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in horny tissues such as hair, feathers, nails, and hooves
  232. squamous cell

    an epithelial cell that is flat like a plate and form a single layer of epithelial tissue
  233. sebum

    the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands
  234. melanin

    insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers
  235. stratum lucidum

    the layer of epidermis immediately under the stratum corneum in the skin of the palms and soles
  236. stratum granulosum

    the layer of epidermis just under the stratum corneum or (on the palms and soles) just under the stratum lucidum; contains cells (with visible granules) that die and move to the surface
  237. corpuscle

    an unattached cell such as a red or white blood cell
  238. lunula

    the crescent-shaped area at the base of the human fingernail
  239. sudoriferous gland

    any of the glands in the skin that secrete perspiration
  240. sebaceous gland

    a cutaneous gland that secretes sebum (usually into a hair follicle) for lubricating hair and skin
  241. pheromone

    a chemical substance secreted externally by some animals (especially insects) that influences the physiology or behavior of other animals of the same species
  242. rickets

    childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D
  243. vitamin A

    any of several fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes
  244. vitamin D

    a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  245. vitamin C

    a vitamin found in fresh fruits and vegetables
  246. vitamin

    an organic substance essential to normal metabolism
  247. peristalsis

    wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract
  248. appendix

    a small sac attached to the large intestines of some animals
  249. cyclooxygenase

    either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
  250. cellulose

    a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
  251. hydrolysis

    a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water
  252. tannin

    any of various complex phenolic substances of plant origin
  253. Syzygium aromaticum

    moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreen widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds which are source of cloves
Created on March 7, 2012
(updated March 9, 2012)